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Essay代寫案例-為什么我們沒有預防艾滋病的疫苗?

來源:原創| 作者:iessaywritingr| 時間:2020-09-10 15:00
      本文是一篇優秀的essay代寫范文,題目為Why don't we have a vaccine to prevent AIDS?文章內容主要討論了為什么我們沒有艾滋病的疫苗。獲得性免疫缺陷綜合癥或通常簡稱為AIDS,是當今人類面臨的對我們健康的最大威脅之一。它是由人類免疫缺陷病毒或HIV引起的。換句話說,艾滋病是艾滋病病毒感染的晚期。自1982年春季在美國報道第一例艾滋病以來,已有3500萬人感染了艾滋病毒,約有2500萬人由于艾滋病并發癥而喪生。
 
預防艾滋病插畫
 
Why don't we have a vaccine to prevent AIDS?
 
      Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or commonly abbreviated as AIDS, is one of the biggest threats to our health that we human beings are facing nowadays. It is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV. In another word, AIDS is the late stage of HIV disease. Since the first AIDS was reported in the United States in the spring of 1982, more than 35 million people have contracted the HIV, and about 25 million people lost their life because of the complications caused by AIDS. HIV is fatal in that it attacks out bodies’ immune systems, which produce white blood cells and antibodies responsible for attacking viruses and bacteria. It is as if that the HIVs are spies that ambushed in the barracks of the forts and disable all the soldiers. Without soldiers (immune system), the forts (out bodies) are much easier to be conquered by other ailments, like flues.
      獲得性免疫缺陷綜合癥(Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome,簡稱AIDS)是當今人類面臨的最大健康威脅之一。它是由人類免疫缺陷病毒或艾滋病毒引起的。換言之,艾滋病是HIV疾病的晚期。自1982年春美國報告第一例艾滋病以來,已有3500多萬人感染艾滋病毒,約2500萬人因艾滋病并發癥而喪生。艾滋病毒是致命的,因為它攻擊人體的免疫系統,免疫系統產生白細胞和抗體,負責攻擊病毒和細菌。兵營里所有的士兵都被伏擊了。如果沒有士兵(免疫系統),堡壘(外軀殼)更容易被其他疾病征服,比如煙道。
 
      Some people may ask that since we have already defeated those seemingly invincible diseases such as measles, smallpox and mumps by using vaccine, is there a vaccine for HIV? Although scientists have been struggling for years trying to create vaccines for the AIDS, unfortunately, completely competent vaccine has not been invented yet. That is because HIV is a very complex, highly changeable virus, which makes speedy development of a successful preventive HIV vaccine extremely difficult.
      有些人可能會問,既然我們已經用疫苗戰勝了麻疹、天花、腮腺炎等看似無敵的疾病,那么有沒有艾滋病疫苗?盡管科學家們多年來一直在努力研制艾滋病疫苗,但不幸的是,還沒有研制出完全合格的疫苗。這是因為HIV是一種非常復雜、高度易變的病毒,這使得迅速研制成功的預防性HIV疫苗極為困難。
 
      HIV is spread when infected blood, semen, vaginal fluids, or breast milk gets into another person. Thus, there are several ways for the HIV to transmit: sexual transmission, blood transmission and vertical transmission. The current worldwide expansion of the AIDS epidemic is primarily driven by the sexual transmission, either heterosexual or homosexual. Also, transmission of HIV can occur following transfusion of blood product derived from an infected person’s blood. The perinatal transmission of HIV virtually account for all new HIV infections in children. As long as we know these means by which HIV spread, we can take measures to avoid AIDS by these following ways. Firstly, practice safe sex. Remember to use a condom with spermicide for anal, vaginal or oral penetration. Secondly, avoid sharing needles with other person. Thirdly, use medial latex gloves if we will be coming into contact with another person’s blood, urine, feces or semen. Indeed, HIV is fatal, but as long as we follow the rule listed above, there is no chance for us to contract the HIV. Meanwhile, we should also know that the HIV is not transmitted through daily hugging, kissing, message, shaking hands, insect bites and sharing showers or toilets with someone else with HIV.
      當受感染的血液、精液、陰道液或母乳進入他人體內時,艾滋病毒就會傳播。因此,艾滋病病毒有幾種傳播途徑:性傳播、血液傳播和垂直傳播。目前艾滋病在世界范圍內的蔓延主要是由性傳播所驅動的,無論是異性戀還是同性戀。此外,艾滋病毒的傳播可能發生在輸血后從受感染者的血液中提取的血液制品。圍產期艾滋病毒的傳播幾乎占了所有兒童新感染艾滋病毒的原因。只要我們知道艾滋病病毒傳播的這些途徑,我們就可以采取以下幾種方法來避免艾滋病。首先,實行安全性行為。記得在肛門、陰道或口腔內使用帶殺精劑的避孕套。第二,避免與他人共用針頭。第三,如果我們要接觸到他人的血液、尿液、糞便或精液,請戴上中間乳膠手套。的確,艾滋病毒是致命的,但只要我們遵守上述規則,我們就沒有機會感染艾滋病毒。同時,我們也應該知道,艾滋病毒不會通過每天的擁抱、接吻、留言、握手、蟲咬以及與其他艾滋病毒攜帶者共用淋浴或廁所等方式傳播。
 
      As what I mentioned above, there is no cure for AIDS currently, but it may be treated with number of different antiretroviral drugs, often in combination. Early treatment with retrovirals, as soon as a person tests positive for infection with HIV, has been shown in studies to reduce to the transmission of HIV. Drugs such as AZT, DDI, and 3TC, which are reverse transcriptase inhibitors, have proved effective in delaying the onset of symptoms in certain subsets of infected individuals. The addition of a protease inhibitor, such as saquinovir, amprenavir, and atazanavir has proved very effective, but the drug combination does not eliminate the virus from the body. Thus, the current treatments are aimed to make patients live longer, lower their risk of developing non-HIV-related illness and to reduce the chances to transmit HIV to others.
      正如我在上面提到的,目前還沒有治愈艾滋病的方法,但是可以用許多不同的抗逆轉錄病毒藥物來治療,通常是聯合用藥。研究表明,一旦一個人的HIV感染檢測呈陽性,早期使用逆轉錄病毒治療可以減少HIV的傳播。AZT、DDI和3TC等藥物是逆轉錄酶抑制劑,已證明能有效地延緩感染者某些亞群癥狀的發生。添加蛋白酶抑制劑,如沙喹諾韋、安普那韋和阿塔扎那韋已被證明是非常有效的,但這種藥物組合并不能將病毒從體內清除。因此,目前的治療方法旨在延長患者的壽命,降低他們患非艾滋病毒相關疾病的風險,并減少將艾滋病毒傳染給他人的機會。
 
      A good piece of news is that the Thai HIV vaccine efficacy trial, known as RV144, demonstrated that latest vaccine was safe and modestly effective in preventing HIV infection. Therefore, we have to be confident, believing that we will finally defeat the AIDS just as we defeat those so-called cureless diseases like plague or smallpox hundreds years ago!
      一個好消息是,被稱為RV144的泰國HIV疫苗功效試驗證明,最新疫苗在預防HIV感染方面是安全和適度有效的。因此,我們必須有信心,相信我們終將戰勝艾滋病,就像我們戰勝幾百年前瘟疫、天花等所謂的無藥疾病一樣!
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