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Essay代寫范文-黑死病的多元社會影響

來源:原創| 作者:iessaywritingr| 時間:2020-09-10 15:43
      下面為大家整理一篇優秀的essay代寫范文,題目為The pluralistic social impact of the Black Death,范文主要討論了黑死病的多元社會影響。根據疾病控制與預防中心的科學家在2014年10月31日的報道,埃博拉已經殺死了4,992人。這是一種真正殘酷的殺手,藏在西非的角落,但與另一種相比瘟疫,埃博拉病毒只是次要的,埃博拉病毒的影響只是刮擦表面。最致命的災難是歐洲中世紀爆發的瘟疫-黑死病。它是人類歷史上最毀滅性的流行病之一(阿德勒274)。
 
黑死病插畫
 
The pluralistic social impact of the Black Death
 
      I. Introduction引言
 
      Recently, there has been a fatal epidemic sweeping West Africa—Ebola. To most people’s surprise, this novel virus has already killed an estimated 4,992 people according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention scientists at 31,October, 2014. It is a really ruthless killer hiding in almost corner of West Africa, but when compared with another pestilence, Ebola is just a minor one and the impacts of Ebola just scratch the surface. The most lethal disaster is the plague that broke out in the Middle Age in Europe—Black Death. It was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history (Adler 274). The Black Death had so profound and far-reaching effects on Europe that it almost ruined Europe from the aspects of demographic, cultural, economy, social structure, politics and even religions. Many terrible impacts of this event still affect Europe and the world today. Before discussing the impacts of the Black Death, one must understand what it is and what it did.As Philip J. Alder explains in his book World Civilization, “The Black Death of the mid-and late fourteenth century is themost massive epidemic on record and by far the most lethal in European history”(273). It also occurred in most part of Asia and the Middle East during the same period, which means this outbreak was actually a worldwideepidemic. The event was firstcalled as the "Great Mortality" in Europe in the14th century, “Death came in about two cases out of three, with the highest morality being the old and young”(Kelly, 132). And with later outbreaks, it became known as the Black Death. The name comes from a symptom of the disease, in which sufferers' skin wouldblacken due to thehaemorrhage under the skin. But the later splash of the epidemic and the huge influence it created added a lot of terror to the name “the Black Death”
      最近,西非爆發了一場致命的埃博拉疫情。令大多數人驚訝的是,據疾病控制和預防中心的科學家們于2014年10月31日稱,這種新型病毒已經導致4992人死亡。它是一個隱藏在西非幾乎角落的殘忍殺手,但與另一種瘟疫相比,埃博拉只是一種輕微的疾病,埃博拉的影響只是表面現象。最致命的災難是中世紀歐洲爆發的瘟疫黑死病。這是人類歷史上最具毀滅性的流行病之一(阿德勒274)。黑死病對歐洲產生了深遠的影響,幾乎從人口、文化、經濟、社會結構、政治甚至宗教等方面毀滅了歐洲。這一事件的許多可怕影響至今仍影響著歐洲和世界。在討論黑死病的影響之前,我們必須了解它是什么以及它是什么是的。就像Philip J.Alder在他的《世界文明》一書中解釋道,“14世紀中后期的黑死病是有記錄以來最大規模的流行病,也是迄今為止歐洲歷史上最致命的”(273)。在同一時期,亞洲和中東的大部分地區也發生了這種情況,這意味著這次疫情實際上是一種世界范圍的流行病。這一事件最早被稱為14世紀歐洲的“大死亡”,“死亡發生在三個案例中的兩個,最高道德標準是老人和年輕人”(凱利,132)。隨著后來的爆發,它被稱為黑死病。這個名字來源于這種疾病的癥狀,患者的皮膚會因為皮下出血而變黑。但后來流行性疾病的爆發和它所造成的巨大影響給“黑死病”這個名字增添了許多恐怖
 
      II. Demographic Impacts人口影響
 
      The most direct and initial impact Black Death brought to Europe is the heavy death toll. As a major medium, rat fleas jumped to human bodies from rats and brought the virus to human beings, so that people could easily get infected. Between human beings, the virus could spread quickly by skin to skin contact, affected food intake and even respiratory tract infection (Tataro26). Besides, since the medical knowledge in the 14th century is undeveloped, not only common people, but also the government was not aware of the severity and nature of the disease. As a result of such a rapid spread of the virus and poor medical knowledge, more and more people got infected and could do nothing but wait to die. Although it is very difficult for historians to tell the exact deaths of the Plague for the lack of record, there’s still some estimate statistics. “In Europe alone, it is likely that from 1347 to 1352, the plague killed at least twenty million people” (Sharon). Gradually, the deaths in Europe were followed by a mass of deaths in the rest part of the world—totally, the initial plague infections and recurrences of the plague caused the world’s population to drop by at least 75 million people in the 14th century (Sharon). Because of this plague, the whole world lost a large population and the continent of Europe became an empty deserted wasteland.
      對歐洲造成的最直接的死亡和死亡人數。鼠蚤作為一種主要媒介,從老鼠身上跳到人體內,將病毒帶到人體內,使人容易感染。在人類之間,病毒可以通過皮膚接觸迅速傳播,影響食物攝入,甚至呼吸道感染(Tataro26)。此外,由于14世紀的醫學知識不發達,不僅是普通人,政府也不知道疾病的嚴重性和性質。由于病毒的迅速傳播和醫學知識的貧乏,越來越多的人被感染,只能等待死亡。盡管由于缺乏記錄,歷史學家很難說出瘟疫的確切死亡人數,但仍有一些估計的統計數字。“僅在歐洲,從1347年到1352年,瘟疫就可能造成至少兩千萬人死亡”(沙龍)。漸漸地,在歐洲的死亡之后,全世界其他地區也出現了大規模的死亡,最初的鼠疫感染和瘟疫的復發導致世界人口在14世紀減少了至少7500萬人(沙龍)。由于這場瘟疫,全世界失去了大量的人口,歐洲大陸變成了一片荒蕪的荒地。
 
      If we take a closer look at the infected population, we would notice the mortality associated with the Black Death is highly selective. Sharon N. DeWitte, who comes from a medical field and shows the bubonic plague through medical terms, analyzes the demographical impacts of the epidemic in her article, Mortality Risk and Survival in the Aftermath of theMedieval Black Death. She believes the medieval epidemic mighthave powerfully shaped patterns of health and demography in thesurviving population, producing a post-Black Death populationthat differed in many significant ways, at least over the short term,from the population that existed just before the epidemic. (1) Like all other epidemic, the Black Death targets frail people of all ages at first and kills themwithin an extremely short period of time.The epidemic represents a force of natural selection and wipe out all that can not survive the challenge. In addition, according to Sharon, the epidemic might have affected genetic variation and thus, acted toreduce average levels of frailty in the surviving population.(2) In this case, we might be able to draw the conclusion that the Black Death guarantees the survivors are those physically stronger people and whose offspring have healthier DNA. Samuel K. Cohn, JR holds a slightly different opinion on that and of course his study mainly focuses on the cultural impacts of the Black Death.
 
      III. Cultural Impacts文化影響
 
      Historical records haveregarded the Black Death as an outbreak of bubonic plague. But Samuel K. Cohn, JR believes the truth is the other way around. While Sharon approaches the impact of the Black Death from the medical standpoint, Samuel views the Black Death more of a social phenomenon or a tragedy that occurred inevitably in history and made a scar on the progress of human civilization as well as on people’s memories. He explains in his article The Black Death: End of a Paradigm:“The character of the Black Death—its speed, mode of transmission,swiftness and psychological impact was wholly different from that of therat-based bubonic plague.” (35) The way Samuel describes the Black Death, using words like “transmission and swiftness” like the Black Death is a living thing, a scary monster, wrecking down towns and cities, taking lives of men and women and destroy civilization. Apart from the unique feature of the Black Death in terms of pathology, I believe although the epidemic serves as a force of natural selection, its immediate psychological strike among European people and its profound impact is what makes the disease as horrible as its name sound. Just like Samuel’s language, which is filled with sincere and gloomy emotion and depicts a sorrowful and obscure language styles, his study focus on the cultural aspects of impacts created by the Black Death and how the epidemic influence on human nature. As Samuel mentions,
 
      The first sweep ofplague, 1347 to 1351, provoked as close to a universal chorus as one hears in history.Merchant chroniclers, priests, and university-trained doctors claimed that thismalady was new to world history, that doctors and medicine were useless, and thatall that could be done was to pray for God's mercy. Explanations of the plague werenot sought in the human sphere but in God's wrath and the configuration of planets. (3)
 
      At the beginning of the plague, since people found no way to deal with it, most people thought it as a punishment that God put to human beings, so they prayed to God to put the plague to an end. Yet their prayers didn’t work so well, so they began to realize that religion could do nothing to stop the spread of the disease and their family’s suffering. Consequently, many people didn’t believe in God anymore and they refused to do church services in many areas. Actually, it implies the powerlessness of the churches when they ran into the plague and weaken the papal authority.The Black Death was so fierce and the Church was powerless to stop it, since people had no idea about viruses at that time. They started to question the Church and their interpretation of life. Apart from the consistently declining spiritual position of Church among normal people, they are losing money as well. With the help of the nobles, the Church successfully suppressed the peasant revolts caused by the Black Death. However, they still couldn’t get themselves out of declining situation. From the point of economy, most of the Church’s incomes were from lands. With the dropping food prices and the rising wages of labors, the Church and nobles can hardly maintain their income. This will be further discussed later.
 
      Furthermore, the Black Death also had a great impact on European society.As mentioned before. Europe lost about half of its entire populations. With so many deaths, the society experienced several big changes which would influencethe development of society later.It’s worth noting that the epidemicincrease thepersecution of the Jews.During the Black Death, Jews were often targeted because people at that time were unable to explain the plague and were in panic. Fewer Jews were killed by the Black Death compared with other ethnic groups. On this occasion, together with the ethnic prejudice and hatred, many people began to wonder if this plague was a Jewish conspiracy or a curse from God that allowed Jews into their lands. So as a result, lots of Jews were arrested and persecuted. In fact, the reason why fewer Jews died during the Black Death was that their settlements were always isolated, and had better hygiene (Kohn, 200). However, this was not understood at that time.
 
      IV.  Economic Impacts經濟影響
 
      The Black Death destroyed the economyof Europe that would require a long timeto recover.After the plague had swept through Europe and reduced the population by a third, the prices of goods and food dropped off drastically because of the sudden surplus. Thus people began to bought things which they didn’t really need. However, excess amount of food had been consumed up, and the shortage of labor began to make an impact. Prices rose uprapidly and became as high as the pre-plague time. In addition, some places experienced a shortage of labor that was not relieved for at least two generations. Laborers were soon in high demand.They realized that their services were rare so they could charge any rate they want. As a result, wages for the surviving workers rose sharply (Routt, 2011). In response to this, governments created laws to limitwages. But this proved to be in vain and in turn would later cause peasant revolts in the later 14th Century.
 
     In addition to the effects on wages, there were other economic effects as well. Towns were once the important centers of trade in the Late Middle Ages. Markets were located in the centers of towns and people from different places could trade with each other here. However, these towns werestruck severely after the Black Death. People lived in towns were much easier to be infected by the disease because of the poor sanitary condition.Thus, people abandoned many townsout of safety(Routt, 2011). As a result, trade was heavilyhindered, and there was no central location for people to meet and trade.
 
      V. Conclusion結論
 
      The Black Death was the terror of the MiddleAges. It affected almost every aspect of life in Europe. And where the plague struck, nothing could be the same. Millions of people died in this period. While some believe the Black Death serves as a force of natural selection and sees the rebirth of a physically-stronger human society. Others insist the epidemic destroys traditional ways of material and spiritual life, social and economic structures in Europe. In any case, the massive damage of the Black Death can’t he denied, but some of the changes caused by this terror turned out to be conducive to the development of society and human races. That’s why people always say: Every cloud has a silver lining.
 
      Works Cited
 
      Sharon, N. DeWitte. Mortality Risk and Survival in the Aftermath of theMedieval BlackDeath. PLoS ONE 9(5): e96513. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096513
 
      Samuel, K. Cohn JR.The Black Death: End of a ParadigmAmerican Historical Review. June 2002, Vol. 107 Issue 3, p703-738. 36p. 21 Graphs.
 
      Adler, Philip J. World Civilizations.America: Wadsworth,2000.Print
  
      Byrne, Joseph Patrick. Encyclopedia of the Black Death. Santa Barbara: Clif, 2012. Print
 
      Kelly, John. The Great Mortality: An Intimate History Of The Black Death, The MostDevastating Plague Of All Time. New York: Harper Collins, 2005.Print.
 
      Kohn, George.Encyclopedia of plague and pestilence: from ancient times to the present. New York:Infobase Publishing, 2008. Print
 
      Tatoro. Suffering in Paradise: The Bubonic Plague in English Literature from More to Milton. Pittsburg: Duquesne University Press, 2005, P26. Print.
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